Assessment of Respiratory Distress by the Roth Score – Chorin – 2016 – Clinical Cardiology – Wiley Online Library

Maximal counting number <10 or counting time <7 seconds identified patients with a room‐air pulse oximetry <95% with sensitivity of 91% and 83%, respectively. Maximal counting number <7 or counting time <5 seconds identified patients with a room‐air pulse oximetry <90% with sensitivity of 87% and 82%, respectively.
— Read on

Old school medicine at work. Cool study.

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Just in case you haven’t switched over to following the new blog at Pillar PC here’s a link to the newest post.

Need help from a few thousand new friends?

Name changes and new opportunities.

As many of you know, Trinity Direct Primary Care is changing. I’ve emailed about this several times over the last couple months. Here’s a recap and an update.

Trinity Direct Primary Care (TDPC) is separating from its parent company. The partners of Trinity Medical Associates (TMA), PC have decided to grow in a direction that requires TDPC to be disconnected from TMA. This brings a great opportunity for me and Dr. Hone. We continue to feel led by God to stay within the direct primary care model of practice. It has benefited both our patients and our own lives tremendously.

Therefore, we are individually purchasing out our practices and will soon begin independent operations and ownership. I am continuing at my current location and changing the practice name from Trinity Medical Associates of Hardin Valley to operate under the name Pillar Primary Care, PLLC. You can find information on my practice and the story behind that name at my new website Lainy and Kristen are continuing on here and I’ve added two new clinical staff, Marci and Mary. Carly is also remaining in her nutritional counseling role. Dr. Hone and I plan to continue to work in a mutually supportive manner the exact nature of which has not been finalized. She is also still finalizing the information on her new location and practice changes but from what I’ve seen so far it’s pretty exciting. We will announce those as soon as the details are settled.

Communication changes
With a new practice name some of our contact points will change but most stay the same. Our office address remains the same as does our office phone numbers. Feel free to call us at 865-244-1800 or fax at 865-444-6002 anytime if we can help.

My new email address is Lainy can be reached at Our nursing staff of Kristen and Mary will share the email so that they are always available for your emails as needed. Marci Wood, FNP, our new advanced practice nurse practitioner, is available at The old email addresses will auto respond with this information if you accidentally email them.

Marci and Mary staff the clinic on Thursdays so that patients can be seen five days a week. I expect us to need them here more days of the week too as we continue to run a monthly waiting list of new patients that would like to join the program. I have also been approached by another large local organization looking to offer DPC for their employees. The DPC trend is exploding!

Lastly, the new Pillar Primary Care Facebook page is

On Call Contact
One change that is both challenging and rewarding is the change of after hours coverage. Once the official separation date is set (it has not been fixed yet as there is a lot of legal work that must be done to disentangle 13 years of joint ownership for me) I will no longer participate in the Trinity call rotation. Therefore, as much as I am able, I will be on call for my patients every day. Generally, I’ll be able to respond to patients who contact me before 5pm each scheduled work day. After 5pm, I’ll follow up the next business day for non-urgent issues and as soon as possible for other issues. Many of you know I respond to non-urgent emails after hours already. That’s likely to continue, but I’m trying to have good boundaries for my work and home lives. Since I really love what I do, it’s a challenge, but my first love remains my family and time with them.

As much as I love my work, it’s simply not possible for one person to be available 24/7. Many of my hobbies take me outside of cell phone range for a time, so there may be circumstances in which I’m not available and patients will need to seek care outside of the membership program in order to address their need in a timely manner. As we grow and add more clinical staff, I expect these circumstance to be even more uncommon. For now and in the future, feel free to contact the office at 865-244-1800 to be directed to the best option for your care either during or after scheduled work hours.

As to vacation, I will continue to take a few weeks each year away with my family. These will most often coincide with Knox County school’s Fall and Spring Breaks and two weeks in the summer. After the separation from Trinity Medical Associates, the walk in clinic will not be available as part of membership services when I’m out of the office. It remains, in my opinion, the best walk in clinic in the region and patients are welcome to seek care there at a very affordable cash rate or utilize their insurance, but it will not be covered by the membership program.

I hope all these shifts, changes, and improvements fill you with the same sense of excitement as they do me. I’m very thankful to the support of my patients over the years and God’s clear provision and guidance to build this program. Please feel free to contact me directly with questions.

-Dr. McColl

Pillar PC welcomes new clinical staff

Today, Pillar PC welcomes two new clinical staff members, Marci Wood, FNP and Mary Cargle, RN. Both ladies bring years of experience in clinical practice and a heart for caring for patients.

I’ve had the chance to know both them and their families for many years through working together or church small groups. I am thrilled to have them on board. They will staff our office on Thursdays so that we can offer appointments five days a week. Marci is available by email at Mary and Kristen will share an email at so patients will be able to reach the appropriate nurse regardless of the day of the week. Please make them feel welcome!

Walmart adds primary care services, right next to automotive

What can’t you get at Walmart?

Apparently nothing. The retail giant has begun opening retail medical clinics in major metropolitan areas with the expectation that more Americans are going to need access to primary care services.

The retailers see 10,000 baby boomers aging into Medicare coverage each day

Walmart’s First Healthcare Super Center Opens

To their credit they do offer a more transparent pricing scheme for services with an asterisk disclaimer stating that the final price of services is dependent on what services are rendered. Certainly the list of labs prices I’ve seen offers standard labs at 4-5x their wholesale price. These are labs we offer free in our practice, by the way.

Additionally, they limit their services to patients older than 18 months of age. That’s pretty typical of retail clinics. I’m sorry/not-sorry for my sarcasm, but retail clinics want to help but only if it’s easy. They aren’t there to actually develop a long term relationship with a patient who needs care over the various seasons of their life. Retail clinics are the definition of vending machine medicine.

Given what I’ve personally experienced trying to get routine medications filled at Walmart, I’m not excited about the prospect of my mother having to get her Medicare annual wellness exams done there. For the sake of all those patients who need a skilled physician to walk with them through the difficult moments of their lives, I hope my pessimism is proven wrong.

‘All natural, 100% fruit juice with no added sugar’ will still kill you.

As a kid, I grew up drinking orange juice from time to time. I always found it one of the most refreshing drinks when I was really thirsty. As I learned more about carbohydrates and their impact on my body, I came to realize that the fast acting nature of a fruit juice drink could be harmful. Now to be fair from the onset, I teach my patients an appropriately low enough carb, whole food nutritional plan that, if followed from an early age, might include naturally occurring fruit like an orange. I’m not anti-fruit or even anti-carb as it is a complex question to answer. I even spent about 30 minutes one afternoon in the middle of Food City answering my then 9 year old daughter’s simple question “Is orange juice healthy?” That being said, I spent so many years of my life eating Poptarts and Crunch Berries that I must be more deliberate about my choices now as a consequence. What is the perfect human diet? That may be different than the diet a particular patient may need to correct the metabolic damage done. The principles remain the same but the details might be different.

In my case, I’ve written before that during my four years of medical residency I was on call every 3rd or 4th night spending about 36 hours straight in the hospital. Making a meager salary, I depended on the meal stipend of $9 per 36 hour shift to get me through those long stints. One wilted, slightly too warm salad was $8.50 and only available at lunch time. However, a package of frosted brown sugar and cinnamon Poptarts was $0.85 all night long. I ‘needed’ the emotional reward anyway. It was easy to justify.

8 ounces of all natural deliciousness?

This morning I decided to try orange juice again since I’m wearing my Freestyle Libre continuous glucose monitor. In a fasted state, I had 8 ounces of all natural, 100% fruit juice with no added sugar orange juice. Pulp free, of course, because I’m not a sociopath. So, is orange juice healthy?

As bad as pancakes

You can see from my monitor report how well controlled my glucose was overnight while fasted. The slight waver noted just before 6am is due to the catecholamine surge that occurs when the alarm clock goes off and I get out of bed. My peak of 160 mg/dL took 31 minutes to occur on the meter which means it was even faster in my blood stream. I might as well be mainlining a glucose solution. This is like going to the beach at noon in the summer time and putting on tan amplifier oil.

The beauty of the CGM is that it automatically tracks the progress of my body sorting and dealing with the excess sugar. It took about 1.5 hours for my system to normalize. During the time of my sugar high I was meeting with some friends for breakfast and I had a hard time concentrating on the topic at hand. Literally, my brain was so foggy that I struggled to remember facts that should have been immediately present on my mind. It was frustrating to say the least. Even now as I write this over 3 hours later I’m still not as clear as I was yesterday when I was still in nutritional ketosis.

Back to normal? Only by the number

So what’s your story? What foods have you had that impacted your glucose numbers? Are there foods you have enjoyed by tradition, culture, or habit that you now realize shouldn’t be a part of your diet? What’s been the impact? I’d love to hear your stories and the lessons you’ve learned. And, if you don’t yet have a CGM, ask your doctor for one. Don’t take ‘no’ for an answer. If they tell you that you don’t qualify for one politely tell them “Well, I have $35 in my pocket and I’m a responsible human interested in my own health, so, yes, I do qualify.”

Mealtime patterns

Posted below are two reports generated from the Freestyle Libre LibreView website. They show the average relative change in my blood glucose with each meal of the day. The first report was during the high carb, standard American diet experiment in July. The second report is from the nutritional ketosis diet I just blogged about and am still following. I think it is readily apparent the differences. In the high carb diet I would jump 20-30 mg/dL every time I ate and I averaged 30-80 gms of carbs per meal at least. With nutritional ketosis the glucose changed less than 10 mg/dL with each meal and I only averaged 6gms of carbs per meal.

Nutritional Ketosis and Intermittent Fasting

Over the last week I’ve documented my progress into nutritional ketosis through a ketogenic diet. Yesterday, I added intermittent fasting to that process. Here are the results.

As most of you know, I have advocated for low carb high fat nutrition to reverse metabolic disease since I began practicing it myself in 1999. My understanding of this powerful tool has grown both with my personal experience of it and with the growing body of literature helping to explain the nuances we should all understand. Over the last three years intermittent fasting (IF) has come into it’s own in large part due to the influence of Jason Fung, MD author of The Obesity Code and The Diabetes Code, both books I highly recommend to my patients. I have adopted IF as a personal routine over the last year and have found it extraordinarily powerful at improving my health and well-being.

There are many different ways to undertake fasting ranging from time restricted eating (TRE) to prolonged fasts. TRE is simply not eating for about 12 hours in every 24 hour cycle such as not eating after dinner until breakfast the next day roughly 12 hours apart (8pm to 8am). Most studies don’t consider this true fasting as many of the genes and benefits of fasting are not measurable until one reaches 14-16 hours of fasting.

Intermittent fasting therefore is usually anything lasting 16 hours or longer with the remaining hours used as an opportunity to feed. A 16:8 protocol is nothing after dinner at 8pm until noon the next day. A 20:4 protocol is nothing between 8pm and 4pm the next day. I recommend many of my patients undertake a 24 hour fast weekly or every fourth day depending on the goal. Again, I stress, please don’t undertake this without talking to me first as many times patients need their medications reduced or altered to avoid being over treated during the fasted state.

Yesterday I undertook a 24 hour fast which ended up lasting 27 hours due to the timing of my dinner meals on Monday and Tuesday. Monday night I ate a quick meal of roasted chicken, blueberries, and macadamia nuts then went to exercise around 5:30pm. I didn’t eat again until Tuesday night at 8:30pm. Tuesday’s dinner of 1/2 of chicken, an avocado, and cheese was 5 net carbs.

Throughout the day I followed my glucose levels on my Libre and my blood ketone levels on my KetoMojo meter. As you can see from the Libre readings below, my glucose levels were exceedingly stable and slowly declined throughout the day to a nadir of about 69 mg/dL right before dinner. My meal didn’t budge that number at all.

The ketone readings steadily climbed to some very nice levels throughout the day and have stayed higher than last week even after I’ve eaten several times today. Starting out the day at 1.0 mmol/L they climbed to 1.7 mmol/L by lunch time, 2.7 mmol/L by the end of work, and 3.1 mmol/L by the time I broke the fast at dinner.

Beneficial ketone zones after an overnight fast should be around 0.5 mmol/L or higher. They are are optimal around 1.5-2 mmol/L while eating a long term ketogenic diet. After a prolonged fast they can be around 3-5 mmol/L.

When I fast I tend to feel better and better as the day progresses. The initial hours can be challenging but as the ketones develop the desire for food all but fades to zero and hunger is non-existent. I really enjoy that freedom. The clarity of thought and presence of mind that comes in this state is one of the main benefits I desire from fasting. It brings me back to it again and again and I find myself looking forward to the next day of fasting.

If you’re interested in learning how to use nutritional ketosis, intermittent fasting, or a continuous glucose monitor for its health benefits give me a call. We’ll walk through the process together to ensure your success and safety.

Nutritional Ketosis, Days 5 & 6

I didn’t get a chance to update the daily posts yesterday as the start of school, high school sports practice, and school supply shopping made for a long day. Regardless, the data hasn’t changed much. I had about 29 net carbs Sunday and 22 net carbs Monday.

This produced very stable blood sugar results as shown below.

The spike on August 4th around noon was due to some heavy outdoor work I was cutting down another storm blown tree. The following trend down into the red zone (again not dangerous) was a recovery period. To a degree this is repeated on August 5th at 6pm where I worked out hiking the Hardin Valley hill. During exercise my glucose climbed and then right afterwards it dipped again. That’s an interesting phenomenon that I’m going to have to study more. It happens more often with outdoor exercise than indoor exercise. Maybe the body heat, sweat, and evaporation have something to do with it. This is a good reminder that not all causes of glucose elevation are to be avoided or are harmful. As the body works it wants to fuel the cells and will send glucose out to do that.

My last meal of the day was at 5:30pm yesterday which was some roasted chicken, blueberries, and macadamia nuts. Then I started my 24 hour fast. I’ve tried to incorporate a 24 hour fast into my weekly routine starting Monday after dinner until Tuesday dinner. For various reasons this is the day I’m least likely to eat with my family so giving up a meal doesn’t usually impact our time together. As I write this I just finished up today’s only meal so the fast ended up lasting about 27 hours. I have to say I feel focused and calm more than normal and I have the ketones to prove it. I’ll tell you more about that tomorrow.

So after one week of ketogenic nutrition with daily net carb intake averaging 19.6 gms per day this morning’s ketone level was a solid 1.0 mmol/L. I hope that one week journey into nutritional ketosis show just how straightforward it can be and how it can be implemented in a very busy life.

Tomorrow I’ll share with you my ketone levels throughout a day of fasting. Stay tuned.

154 people can’t be wrong

Low carb nutrition prompted a 20 lb weight loss along with a reduction in blood pressure even after they had a 20% reduction in medication in these 154 diabetic and insulin resistant individuals that was sustained over two years on average.


: Hypertension is the second biggest known global risk factor for disease after poor diet; perhaps lifestyle interventions are underutilized? In a previous small pilot study, it was found that a low carbohydrate diet was associated with significant improvements in blood pressure, weight, ‘deprescribing’ of medications and lipid profiles. We were interested to investigate if these results would be replicated in a larger study based in ‘real world’ GP practice. 154 patients with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance were recruited into an observational cohort study in primary care. The effects of a low carbohydrate diet sustained for an average of two years (interquartile range 10–32 months) on cardiovascular risk factors were examined. Results demonstrate significant and substantial reductions in blood pressure (mean reduction of systolic BP 10.9 mmHg (interquartile range 0–22 mmHg) (p < 0.0001), mean reduction in diastolic BP 6.3 mmHg (interquartile range 0–12.8 mmHg) (p < 0.0001) and mean weight reduction of 9.5 Kg (interquartile range 5–13 Kg) (p < 0.0001) together with marked improvement in lipid profiles. This occurred despite a 20% reduction in anti-hypertensive medications. This novel and potentially highly effective dietary modification, done very cheaply alongside routine care, offers hope that should be tested in a large prospective trial.